Blackberry, Morus

tree of the family Moraceae
(Breadfruit, Fig tree, Jackfruit, Blackberry, Orange tree of Osages, Pippal)

The family Moraceae includes about 70 genera and one thousand species: it is about trees or about shrubs most often tropical, producing the latex, in leaves alternate, simple, entire or more or less lobbed.
Etymology: " Morus " is its Latin name.
Black mulberry, Morus nigra, native to Persian, so named because of his vinous fruit;
White mulberry or "mulberry of the silkworm", Morus alba (introduced from China to France, in Drôme, by Sir Allan, in 1494);
Blackberry kagaya or Blackberry with leaves of Plane tree, Morus platanifolia;
Paper Blackberry, Broussonetia papyrifera, frequent in Provence.
Difference is pointed out in the table below.
Habitat: Blackberries support the limestone and are very fond of light (species heliophilouss) and heat (thermophilics).
Lifespan: in the order of 100-150 years.
Height: 10-15 m tall.
Shape: broad crown except the black Blackberry with a spread form.
Cracked, black bark, with, in the black mulberry, bumps.
Deciduous foliage. Leaves in May with flowers. Blackberries have leaves of very various forms, generally oval, heart-shaped base, sharpened end, and slightly toothed margin. They are sometimes deeply lobbed, possibly assymmetrical in comparison with the central vein. Stems contain a white sap rich in latex. The Paper Mulberry is a species dioecious: the male flowers are catkins, the female flowers are bowls of 1 cm in diameters (glomerules), ruffled of purple hair papiloses which are stigmata (as on the Oasage Orange). The fruits of Blackberries resemble the blackberries of the bramble, but differ from it : the mulberry is a mass of small fleshy fruits, while the mulberry of the bramble results from the single flower the calyx of which is found at the base. Every carpel gives a fleshy element containing a seed..
White mulberry:
the leaves of the white mulberry serve in the feeding of the silkworm (bombyx caterpillars).
Black mulberry: the bark contains substances which kill tapeworms. Its wood is searched in cabinetmaking and used in stationery shop. The fruit is edible, not as it is, but in syrup used as emollient as well as in jam or in jelly (as the mulberry).
Blackberry with paper: its bark, liqueur brandy, served for making a luxury paper in Asia.

Difference White mulberry Black mulberry Blackberry with paper Blackberry kagaya
Origin China Persia China Japan
Bark cracked with big bumps. exfoliating cracked, black
Leaves ovate, somewhat asymmetrical, roughly toothed, sometimes lobbed. big, green checkmate oval, finely toothed. big (16 cm), deeply lobbed, very dark green
Base   cordate   in V
Top smooth, glossy rough very harsh glossy
Underside light pubescent hairy glabrous
Fruit white pinkish blackish, edible red pubescent    


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