transparent

the oldest Trees:

Baobab 5.150 years. Japanese Cedar (Cryptomera) 5.200 years. common Spanish chestnut 900 - 1.000 years. Oak 4.000 years. Cork oak 250 - 500 years. Cypress 1.970 years. common Ash 250 - 275 years. Ginkgo 3.000 years on Mt Fulaï. English Yew 3 000 years. Larrea tridentata 11.700 years. Olive tree (with recépées stocks) 2 000 - 4 000 years. Black poplar 500. Pine Huon 10.000. Pinus longaeva (pine brestlecone) around 4 900 years (potential life 5 500; record 5 100 in the Nevada, still living: " Mathusalem " 4.700 years in California). Pinus aristata 4 600 years. Plane tree 800 years. Pear tree 700 years. Rosebush 1.100 years. Sequoia giant 2.000 years. Linden 400 years. Great Britain: oak near Nottingham where Robin des Bois and his companions 800 years had habit to hide.

the oldest Trees of France:

Hawthorns: 1 700 years (St-Mars-sur-la-Futaie, Mayennne).
Boxwood : 400 years (Combe-de-Chambolle, C.-d' Or).
Cedars: 200 years (Orléans, Loiret ; St-Just, L.-et-G.).
Spanish chestnuts: millenniums (Abbaretz, Loire-Atlantique, circumference 10,6 m; Ganges, Gard; Vico, Corsican): 1 000 years (Neuillé, M.-et-L.: St-Cernin-de-l' Herm. Dordogne; Sancerre, Cher).
Oaks: 2 500 years (Pessines, Ch.-M.): 2 100 years (Allouville, S.-M.); 15 m of circumference, height 25 m, contains 2 chapels since 1696, done again in 1851 ; 2 000 years (St-Sulpice-le-Verdon, Vendée; Villedieu-la-Blouère, M.-et-L.); 1 000 years (Beauval-en-Caux, S.-M.); "Supporters Oak" (Vosges), 18m circumference at level of roots, 9,8 m in 2,3 m of the soil, 32 m tall: 1 000 years (St-Pardoux, Deux-Sèvres, circumference 11,3 m); millenniums (Bulat-Pestivien, Côtes-d'Armor) ; 850 years (St-Avold, Moselle); 800 years (St-Jeannet, years-.; St-Vincent-de-Paul, Landes, circumference 12,5); 750 years (St-Jean-de-Compiègne, Oise); 700 years (St-Ouen-les-Parey, Vosges; Beauvardes, Aisné); 600 years (forest of Sénart, Essonne; St-Aubin-de-Blaye, Gironde; forest of Token - Help. North; Itary Pyr.-Atl.). 500 years (Lambonnière of Pervenchères, Orne). 450 years Jupiter oak (Ile-de-Fr)
Cork Oaks: millenniums (Londe-les-Maures, Var).
Evergreen oaks: 1 000 years (Talmont-St-Hilaire, Vendée); 350 years (Denigrate, Ch.-M.).
Cypress: 600 years (Montigny, Normandy).
Fig trees: 370 years (Roscoff, Finistère).
Ginkgo biloba: 300 years (Tours, I.-et-L.); 200 years (Nancy, M.-et-M.).
Beeches: millenniums (Verzy, Marl) ; 500 years (Frémestroff, Moselle); 270 years (Marchaux, Doubs).
English Yews: 1 600 years (Estry, Applejack, circumference 12 m); 1 500 years (Haye-de-Routot, Evre); 1 400 years (Vigeois, Corrèze); 1 200 - 1 500 years (Lande-Patry, Orne); 1 200 years (Gisors, Evre); millenniums (Lalacelle, Orne; Pommerit-le-Vicomte, Côtes-d'Armor ; St-Ursin, Manche); 900 years (Bertric-Burée, Dordogne); 800-900 years (Lande-Patry, Orne); 800 years (Motte-Feuillie, Indre).
Magnolias: 230 years (Nantes, Loire-Atlantique).
Hackberries: 500 years (Aix-en-Prov., B.-du-Rh.).
Olive trees: 2 000 years (Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, years-.) ; millenniums (Nyons, Drôme; L'Union, Hte-G.).
Elms: [1 000 years (Died Cassignas, L.-et G., 1985)] ; 700 years (Roquefixade, Ariège).
Poplars: 200 years (Gourville, Charente, " Liberty tree " planted in 1789).
Black poplars: 500 years (Montpellier-de-Médillan, Ch.-M.).
Umbrella Pines: 400 years (Dunes, T.-et-G.: Geay, Ch.-M.).
Plane trees: 500 years (Marseilles, B.-du-Rh.); 300 years (St-Guilhem-le-Désert, Hérault).
Pear trees: 200 years (Argoules, Nap).
Apple trees: 200 years (Jullouville, Manche).
Black Locust tree: (408 years in 2000) in the small public garden of Viviani facing Notre-Dame, the oldest tree of Paris.
Whining willows: 300 years (Marseilles, B.-du-Rh.).
Lindens: 1 700 years (Estry, Calvados); 1 300 years (Bergheim, Ht-Rh.); millenniums (Avolsheim-Dompeter, B.-Rh.); 700 years (Autrechine, Territory of Belfort) ; 562 years (Samoens, Hte-Savoie), 521 years (Ivoire, Jura).

the oldest Plant: holly shrub Lomatia tasmania from Tasmania (Australia) 43.000 years.


trees:

The highest: Abies squamata grows until 4 600 m altitude. Ermania himalayensis and Ranunculus lobatus found in 1995 at 6 400 m of alt., mount Kamet (India).
The tallest: Sequoia sempervirens " Paradox Tree ", 112,47 m tall and pine of Douglas, 100,27 m (California, USA). Regnans Eucalyptuses, 95 m (Tasmania, Australia); a specimen thrown in 1872 in Australia would have achieved 132,6 m tall. sempervirens Eucalyptuses 92 m (Portugal, on 1972). Kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) of 70 m (Java). France: 3 Silver Firs planted by 1694: 47 m, 51 m and 52 m (Russey, the Doubs). Plane tree avenue Foch (Paris) 42 m tall.
The smallest: Arctic willow or herbaceous : 2 cm (visible in high mountain), growing until 83 o of lat. North (as well as the yellow poppy).
The biggest trunks: Castanea sativa called " chestnut of 100 horses " (Sicily), between 3 600 and 4 000 years old, had 57,9 m of circumference in 1780 (destroyed partly by bad weather, it is cracked in 3 parts and measure today about 51 m). Some baobabs (Adansonia digitata) could measure 43 m of circumference. Banian can have more than 350 big trunks and 3 000 offshoot; Calcutta (India), Banian fig : 412 m of circumference. cypress from Santa Maria del Tula (Mexico), about 1 000 years: 34,25 m tall. France : Oriental plane tree (of 7 m of circumference in the park of Monceau, Paris).
The bulkier: Lindsey's Creek Tree, séquoïa with a trunk of 2 549 m 3 of volume, 3 300 t, rooted out during a storm in 1905; still living: Giant sequoia " General Sherman " (Calif., USA) height 84 m, circumference 31,3 m tall. 2 000 t.
Unique specimens: palm from the island Mauritius (Hyophorbe amaricaulis) in the botanical gardens: Coffee tree of the species Ramosmania heterophylla, 13 cm in the royal botanical gardens of London (1 or 2 wild feet in the island Maurice in 1989).

Wood

The heaviest: Olea laurifolia or sidéroxylon (Southern Africa): 1 490 kg / m 3 , does not float.
The lightest: Aeschynomene hispida (Cuba) : 44 kg / m 3 . Balsa: 40 - 380 kg / m 3 . Cork: 240 kg / m 3 .

Growth

The quickest: Albizia falcata (neighbouring tree acacias) planted 1975 in Malaysia attained 30 m there 5 years and 4 months. A specimen of Hesperoyucca whipplei grew 3,65 m in 14 days in 1978 on islands Sorlingues. Some bamboos grow 91 cm by day (4 cm / h), and can attain 30 m in 3 months.
The slowest: Puya raimondii, the panicle appears at the end of 80 - 150 years. bousaïs achieve 30 cm at the end of 98 years (trunk: 2,5 cm in diameter). One Dioon edule of 120 years measure 10 cm. Fitzroya (Chile) can attain 60 m, 3 m of diameter and 2 000 years, but measure barely 20 m in 300 years.

Leaves

The biggest: Raffia ruffia (islands Mascareignes) and Raffia taedigera or palm of Amazon (America from the South and Africa): until 20 m tall. Regia Victoria (waterlily, discovered in British Guyana 1837) : until 2 m of diam. Banana tree: 6 m long, 1 m (exceptional) large.
Trees having most leaves: cypress: 45 - 50 millions (needles). Oak: around 250 000.

Fruits, the heaviest

Jacques (from the Jackfruit): 15 - 40 kg; Sea Coconut: 18 kg (the growth can take 10 years).

Hedges

Beeches (Scotland): top. 26 m, long. 550 m, planted there 1746. English Yews (lord Bathurst park. G.-B.): top. 11 m, thickness 4,50 m tall. Boxwood (Offaly, Ireland): top. 11 m, planted in XVIII th s.

Roots

The deepest, those of one fig tree from the Transvaal (Southern Africa): 120 m tall. One elm English : 110 m tall.

the most sprawling, that of one Populus tremuloides , 43 hectares and 6 000 t, in the Utah (USA).

Botanical gardens

From 1540-50: created in link with the university pulpits for the production of simple and the training of the doctors. Italy: Padoue, Florence, Pise, Bologna; the Netherlands: Leyde.
By 1595: France. First in Montpellier by Richer de Belleval: 1 300 plants (catalogue 1598). Paris : small garden on the island of the City, lead by Jean then Vespasien Robin, exotic flowers.
1626-33: Garden of Plants (1 st catalogue 1636) created under the name of " royal Garden curative Plants " become " natural history museum of natural history " at hte French Revolution.
By 1634: Blois.


greenhouses and winter gardens

"The garden of Amsterdam" : glass shed where grow and bear fruit the tropical plants, among which the coffee tree arabica (1713).

in France:

by 1780 1st greenhouses, glass walls and shell of wood and metal.
XVIII th and XIX th s. Paris (park Monceau). Malmaison, Suresnes for Salomon de Rothschild, Ferrières for James de Rothschild, Castle of Aubigny in Céret (Pyr.-Or)
Towards 1835-40, Nantes, greenhouses.
On 1836 Paris, Garden of Plants: pavilions built by Charles Rohault de Fleury for vegetables of arid areas.
On 1857 Paris, winter garden: 100 × 65 m, top. 18,5 m tall.
1865-90 Lyons, big greenhouses.
On 1884 Strasbourg, greenhouse Victoria in the botanic garden.
On 1927 Paris, greenhouses of Auteuil: 100 × 15 m, top. 16 m tall.
On 1936 Paris. Garden of Plants: winter garden 55 × 20 m, high. 16 m, constructed by Shepherd.

in Great Britain:

1820-27 Syon.
On 1826 Chatsworth By Paxton.
By 1830 Bicton, greenhouse with palms (20 × 10 m).
1844-48 1st metallic greenhouses.
On 1851 London (Crystal Palace, 562 × 124 m, top. 33 m).

 

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