Advices to plant a tree (or a shrub)...
You chose your tree or your shrub (according to the soil, to its form, its particular colours, dates of blossoming and of fructification). For a better guarantee of success of the planting, envisage a soil analysis. If your soil is loamy (a few permeable, heavy, sticky in autumn and cracked in summer), do not moan, because the list is long of trees which tolerate a clay soil: quince tree of Japan, lilac, elder, viburnum, Judas tree, alder, cherry tree of Japan, oak, Field Maple, maple of Cappadoce, beech, poplar, pear tree, rowan, willow, linden... On the other hand, conifers grow better in a light and warm earth, therefore not loamy (a loamy earth is heavy and cold). In a poor and humid earth, birches, alders, ashes and willows will be favoured.
Second stage: well choose the site in your garden. Think of the future growth of your tree, the shade which it will cast, notably in winter, when the sun is low. Think of regulation distance with neighbourhood. Leave the place for the development of roots: in general the volume occupied by roots is the same that of all branches, it is therefore necessary to count at least 20 square metres in the soil for a tree. Plant in at least 7-8 m from the facade of your home, to avoid (or to limit) any conflict with roots, to move away insects attracted by your tree in the summer, and to limit risks of fall in case of storm.
Also prove the evacuation of the water. Drain by digging a ditch filled up with pebbles, choose a persistent shrub. Boxwood , cherry-red laurel, yew tree, camellia and in general all that keeps its leaves in winter, drinks some water and drains the ground around.
Do not expose to direct sunlight and wind your plant before it has been replanted.
When to plant? Shrubs bought in pot (or container) can be planted any time of season, but trees, roots of which are bare, are preferably planted in autumn ("at Sainte-Catherine - November 25th, everything takes root.") because they will have the time, during winter, to make a good root system, to launch in the spring returned to the attack to the sky! You can still plant in early spring when all danger of frost has passed. One exception, the conifers with creeping roots resent humidity fall and should be planted in early spring (except during freezing), when the earth has warmed. Among the flowering shrubs, rhododendrons will be planted in spring after the first flowering.
Last precaution before planting: prune the tips of large roots, to enable the resumption root, then soak in a bucket containing water and cow dung (!). This will stimulate the root growth and provide moisture for a good recovery. It is better to replant a tree or shrub still young, because it can take root deeply. A fairly large tree has developed its roots in a pot (not in depth), unless the nurseryman has cut it for easy transport. The cherry trees, magnolias, oaks, maples root most deeply. Some species such as beech, birch and poplar that have large water requirements will extend their roots at the surface and at depth.
Dig a deep and broad hole (double of the volume of the clod). Cover the bottom of a felt of draining. If your soil is loamy, a too deep hole would keep the water too big quantity (if the brought back earth is more permeable). Some shrubs will be able to be planted on mounds slightly in height. Then be sure not to bury the graft points. You will show it better if you use a small board put down horizontally on horseback on the hole. Fill the cavity with ventilated earth, enriched with compost to make easier the colonisation of roots. Do not put in the hole the soil that you removed! If you plant a rhododendron, mix the garden soil with so called heather soil. Tamp the soil brought, at the foot to make a saucer. You have to water thoroughly (20 liters minimum). This allows the soil particles from sticking to the plug and drain the excess air. Then, avoid walking on soft earth, because it takes longer to compact. A final caution: Mulch the soil with dry grass mowing (if it's the end of autumn), pine bark or flakes of flax. These components will prevent weeds to flourish, and lighten the soil without penetrating the effort gradually. If your garden is exposed to winds, plant a stake, making sure not to overtighten the trunk, which would suffer as it grows. There are necklaces expandable to this effect. Water during the first three years, especially in summer. Indeed, the plant, before growing, strengthens the root system. This guarantees a harmonious and good resistance to drought!
One last tip: make sure the water supply during the first year of planting to prevent drying of roots, especially in early summer heat, as your tree is still fragile. Finally, if your garden is exposed to wind, especially if you plant a conifer with pyramidal or columnar habit, stake it until it reaches 4-5 m in height.
- fruit trees